The abnormal metabolic processes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been proposed to contribute to secondary injuries after TBI. Therefore, enteral nutrition (EN) support for TBI patients has received more attention. This study aimed to evaluate the complimentary effects of enteral nutrition with glutamine and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on the recovery of TBI. TBI model was established in SD rats, which were randomly divided into four groups: TBI, TBI + HBO, TBI + GLN, and TBI + HBO + GLN. Neuronal apoptosis in penumbra area was detected by TUNEL. Serum prealbumin level was detected by ELISA. Motor function was evaluated by beam-balance test. We found that the body weight of the rats had no significant differences in different groups before and after injury. Among the four groups, beam-balance test score was the lowest, serum prealbumin level was the highest, and neuronal apoptosis rate was the lowest in TBI + HBO + GLN group on day 3 and 7 after TBI. In conclusion, our data suggest that hyperbaric oxygen combined with enteral nutrition support with glutamine is effective in reducing neuronal apoptosis, increasing serum prealbumin concentration and improving neurological function after TBI injury.