Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and clinically there is no effective therapy for neuroprotection. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been experimentally demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several models and has shown efficiency in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Compared with other preconditioning stimuli, HBO is benign and has clinically translational potential. In this review, we will summarize the results in experimental brain injury and clinical studies, elaborate the mechanisms of HBO-PC, and discuss regimes and opinions for future interventions in acute brain injury.

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